In 1963, an Italian Presidential Decree introduced a law that established rules to protect the naming of wines' original locations. In this, Italy followed France that had adopted similar rules back in 1952 with the introduction of the Appellation d'Origine.
A similar mesure was adopted subsequently to identify and guarantee specialty food products.
Currently the rules are regulated by the L. 164/92 and DPR 930/83, a follow-up decree of the L. 116/63 and are know as "New Discipline of Original Location Certification".
The wine is classified into three categories:
- Vini di qualitá prodotti in regione determinata (VQPRD) or Quality wines produced in a defined region.
They are divided into:
Vini da Tavola or Table Wines.
- Denominazione di Orogine Controllata (DOC, or Original Location Certified), and
- Denominazione di Orogine Controllata e Garantita (DOCG, or Original Location Certified and Guaranteed).
They are split into two sub-categories:
Vini speciali or Specialty Wines
- Vino da Tavola (VTD, or Table Wine), and
- Vino da Tavola con Indicazione Geografica Tipica (IGT, or Table wine from Typical Geographic Area).
Include aromatized and liquorous wines.
Mentions such as Superiore or Riserva means that the wine went through extra aging or other treatment, in accord to the 'disciplinare', or the set of rules regulating all official denominations.
The food products are classified as follows. The goal is to legally guarantee consumers that the products they buy and serve on their tables are exactly the ones specified on the labels, including their regional origin.
Denominazione di Origine Protetta, or Protected Denomination of Origin. This is the top tier. Product that are assigned the DOP denomination must be produced exclusively in very limited and strictly defined areas.
it compared to the DOC denomination in Wines.
Indicazione Geografica Tipica, or Protected Geographic Indication. These product may come from wider areas than the DOP products, as it was certified that the typical characteristics of each product is within the approved standards for the whole area.
it compared to the IGT denomination in Wines.